The People

Earliest Inhabitants

The Janjuas and Jats, who now hold the Salt Range and its northern plateau respectively.

Later Invaders

The Gakhars, who appear to represent an early wave of conquest from the west, and who still inhabit a large tract in the east of the District, while the Awans, who now cluster in the western plain are apparently later invaders.

Casts & Clans

  • Principal Casts: Gujjar, Janjua,Awan, Gakhar, Kashmiri, Khokhar, Pathan, Lilla, Qureshi, Phaphra Mughal, Maliar, Syed and Punjabi Shaikh
  • Jat Clans:  Bhukar, Cheema, Dhamial, Ghuman, Gondal, Hal, Khingar, Khoti, Khatarmal, Mekan, Nagyal, Sipra, Thathaal and Toor
  • Rajput Clans: Akra, Bharat, Bhakral, Bhatti, Chauhan, Chib, Janjua Rajput, Jalap and Sohlan


Jhelum is known for providing a large number of soldiers to the British Army before independence and later to the Pakistan armed forces due to which it is also known as 'city of soldiers' or 'land of martyrs and warriors.


Urdu is the language spoken and understood by all. However majority of the people, especially those living in the city speak Punjabi. People living in cantonment are not generally the citizens of Jhelum and consist of army officials posted there that belong to different areas of the country. Hence, Urdu is the main language spoken and understood by the people living in the cantonment. The educated elite living in Jhelum also understand and speak English.


People of the Jhelum are simple and most of the population resides in villages. Major casts living in district Jhelum include Rajput, Jat, Kyanis. Since the area is not rich in agriculture, most of the people engage in different jobs other than cultivating crops. Life of the people living in Jhelum can be divided into people living in the city and those living in the cantonment. The people living in the cantonment are mainly the army officials while those living in the city are either landlords or own showrooms etc. People start their day early in the morning with male members of the house going to their work place and children going to schools. Female members of the house stay back and look after the house. However there are also women who work. The city is leading towards continuous development and advancement. Initially the city lacked good market for clothing and other household items. People usually traveled to Rawalpindi or Lahore for the shopping. Now the trend is changing. People of this area have gone abroad to earn their lively hood and most of them are settled in United Kingdom and Middle East.